Government Mandate

Turkey: Electricity Sector Reform Strategy

This policy undertakes the liberalization/privatization of the energy market in order to increase economic efficiency of production and delivery and increase the quality and reliability of the product.  Liberalization will implement cost-reflective prices.

Date Implemented: 2004

Status: In Force; Framework Policy

Turkey: Electricity Market Law (Law Number 4628)

This legislation generated two policies related to renewables: First, renewable energy facilities are only required to pay 1% of the total license fee or the license for construction, and they are exempt from license fees for the first eight years following the completion date.  Second, the Turkish Electricity Transmission Company (TEIAS) and distribution companies are required to give priority status for renewables facilities’ systems connection.

Turkey: Air Quality Protection Regulation

These regulations aim to reduce the emissions of soot, smoke, dust, gases, steam and aerosol. It limits the concentrations of pollutants in the flue gas.  Power plants are required to take measure to reduce sulfur oxide concentration in flue gases limiting them to 1000 mg/Nm3, the limit is set by the related regulation for all lignite fired power plants.  Facilities that have been listed as unhealthy or harmful now require that permission to operate be granted by the Emission License System.

Turkey: Street lighting & government buildings

Power saving measures are imposed on government buildings and street lighting is reduced.

Date Implemented: 2000

Status: Mandatory

References: IEA


Turkey: Flue gas desulphurization (FGD) units

The government requires flue gas desulphurization (FGD) units on all new coal power plants.

Status: Mandatory

References: EIA Turkey’s Environmental Issues,


Thailand: Conservation Forests

The Thai government has declared a policy of maintaining no less than 25% of the total land area as conservation forests.

Status: In Force; Mandatory

References: National Communication to the UNFCCC


Thailand: More stringent vehicle emissions standards

As of 1993 all vehicles are required to have catalytic converters installed. IN 1999-2001, new emissions standards have been adapted from the European Union’s standards and implemented.  An inspection program has been set up to enforce these standards.

Status: In Force; Mandatory

Thailand: LPG and Natural Gas in buses and taxis

The first NGV bus fleet was introduced in Thailand in 1984 with aid from the New Zealand government. Future efforts were not as successful, but now, NG prices are set at 50% of the price of diesel in order to make it more commercially viable (natural gas is exempt from all tax but the VAT). Special low interest loans are arranged for taxis to convert to natural gas and grants are made for the bus system to purchase NGV engines.

Thailand: DSM Program under the 8th National Social and Economic Development Plan

The mechanisms for meeting the DSM targets include increased efficiency lighting and a campaign for increased energy efficiency in appliances.

Date Implemented: 1997-2001

Status: Ended

Thailand: Energy Conservation and Promotion Act