National Security

China: U.S.-China Biomass MOU

South Africa: Biofuels Strategy

This strategy is based on a draft developed by the Energy by the Biofuels Task Team in 2006. The strategy proposes to make the liquid fuel supply 2% biofuels in 5 years. It targets sugar cane, sugar beet, canola, sunflower, and soy, but avoids use of corn because of food security issues. The strategy seeks to continue incentives to develop biofuels through tax breaks and exemptions, and addresses issues of production,  land use, water resources, and funding.

Turkey: Draft bill encouraging renewables

Turkey has a great deal of potential in renewable energy. Further development, financing and market reforms are needed to allow the technologies to be competitive.


Targets: Turkey aims to provide 2% of its electricity from wind power

References: EIA Country Analysis Brief: Turkey, http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/cabs/turkey.html

EIA Turkey’s Environmental Issues

Turkey: Air Quality Protection Regulation

These regulations aim to reduce the emissions of soot, smoke, dust, gases, steam and aerosol. It limits the concentrations of pollutants in the flue gas.  Power plants are required to take measure to reduce sulfur oxide concentration in flue gases limiting them to 1000 mg/Nm3, the limit is set by the related regulation for all lignite fired power plants.  Facilities that have been listed as unhealthy or harmful now require that permission to operate be granted by the Emission License System.

Thailand: National Energy Strategy

Thailand: Small Power Producer (SPP) program

The Thai government supports the development of renewable and non-conventional electricity production and cogeneration. SPPs can sell electricity to EGAT for distribution or to consumers located near the plant provided that this energy is generated using hydro, biomass or thermal cogeneration. Under this program, one enterprise is developing power plants fueled by rice husk. 


Date Implemented: 1992

Thailand: Solar Power

In an effort to decrease dependence on foreign imports for electricity production, the Thai government is constructing a 42.5 MW solar power plant in the northern province at Mae Hong Son.  The government has also undertaken a project to supply 300,000 homes with solar cells to generate additional solar energy.


Date Implemented: 2004

Status: In Force; Government Initiative

Thailand: LPG and Natural Gas in buses and taxis

The first NGV bus fleet was introduced in Thailand in 1984 with aid from the New Zealand government. Future efforts were not as successful, but now, NG prices are set at 50% of the price of diesel in order to make it more commercially viable (natural gas is exempt from all tax but the VAT). Special low interest loans are arranged for taxis to convert to natural gas and grants are made for the bus system to purchase NGV engines.

Thailand: 8th National Social and Economic Development Plan

Singapore: Increased efforts to use natural gas

Since natural gas is cleaner than fuel oil, Singapore has taken several steps to increase electricity production from natural gas rather than from fuel oil.  It has supported companies in entering import agreements with Malaysia and with the Indonesian state-owned company, Pertamina, to supply natural gas imports.  It is also interested in building an LNG import terminal to allow it to further diversify its supply.


Date Implemented: 1992