India: Energy Policy

This policy outlines the  challenges that India faces as it develops and must generate and provide increasing amounts of energy. Measures include adressing energy security by acquring abundant supplies of coal and gas,  and increasing hydro and nuclear power.  India seeks to improve energy efficiency by reducing energy intensity across many sectors including mining, electricity distribution, transportation, industry and building construction. The policy also outlines methods to promote renewable energy and increase R&D.

Turkey: Petroleum Market Law

Turkey: Gas Tax

The Turkish government raised taxes on unleaded gasoline, diesel, and natural gas to increase revenues as the IMF had recommended.

Date Implemented: 2004

Status: In Force; Mandatory

References: EIA Country Analysis Brief: Turkey,


Turkey: Environmental Impact Assessment Regulation (EIAR)

Part of the Environmental Law of ‘83, this legislation outlines the administrative and technical principles surrounding an environmental impact assessment that will be undertaken to identify and to evaluate all possible impacts any public or private project may have on the environment and to prevent any damages these projects may cause.

Date Implemented: 1983

Status: In Force; Mandatory

Turkey: Automobile Standards

The Ministry of Environment and automobile manufacturers reached an agreement on environmental performance standards in new cars.  Starting in 2000, all imported and locally produced new automobiles are to be equipped with catalytic converters.

Date Implemented: 1993

Status: In Force; Mandatory


Thailand: More stringent vehicle emissions standards

As of 1993 all vehicles are required to have catalytic converters installed. IN 1999-2001, new emissions standards have been adapted from the European Union’s standards and implemented.  An inspection program has been set up to enforce these standards.

Status: In Force; Mandatory

Thailand: LPG and Natural Gas in buses and taxis

The first NGV bus fleet was introduced in Thailand in 1984 with aid from the New Zealand government. Future efforts were not as successful, but now, NG prices are set at 50% of the price of diesel in order to make it more commercially viable (natural gas is exempt from all tax but the VAT). Special low interest loans are arranged for taxis to convert to natural gas and grants are made for the bus system to purchase NGV engines.

Thailand: Fiscal measures to promote environmentally friendly products

Excise tax incentives have been introduced for machines, equipment and materials conserving energy or protecting the environment. The government increased taxes on motorcycles, batteries, marble, granite and air conditioners.

Date Implemented: 1997

Status: In Force; Voluntary

Thailand: New Thai Constitution

Thailand: 8th National Social and Economic Development Plan